We all know that matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. All matter is made up of atoms, which are the smallest particles of an element that have the chemical properties of that element.
Atoms are held together by forces called bonds, which can be either ionic or covalent (chemical). The type of bond determines the phase of matter.
Moving Further, matter can exist in three main phases: solid, liquid, and gas. The phase of matter depends on the type of bond between the atoms.
In a solid, the atoms are closely bonded together and have a fixed shape and volume. In a liquid, the atoms are less tightly bonded and can flow around each other. In a gas, the atoms are very far apart and can move freely.
The phase of matter can also be changed by adding or removing heat energy. When heat energy is added to a substance, the molecules begin to vibrate more and move faster. This causes the substance to expand and take up more space.
Before moving further, let’s answer the question:
Is Boiling Endothermic Or Exothermic?
Boiling is an endothermic process in which matter absorbs heat from the surroundings. This raises the internal energy or temperature of the substance. A liquid changes into a gaseous form when getting heated to its boiling point. For example, water changes its state to steam grasping heat from the fire.
When heat energy is removed from a substance, the molecules vibrate less and slow down. This causes the substance to contract and take up less space.
The phase of a substance can also be changed by changing the pressure. When the pressure is increased, the molecules are forced closer together. This causes the substance to become denser and take up less space. When the pressure is decreased, the molecules are forced further apart. This causes the substance to become less dense and take up more space.
Matter can be described using physical and chemical properties.
Molecules of matter exert attractive forces on each other. This means any two molecules of a substance that are close to each other attract each other with some force. This intermolecular force is called cohesive force in the case of molecules of the same substance. To ‘cohere’ means to stick together. The tendency of molecules to stick together due to the attractive force between them is called cohesion.
In the process of boiling, on heating, the substance molecules start moving from their place. This heat energy is sometimes also called kinetic energy. Provided heat is equivalent to exciting or pushing small invisible molecules to start striking with each other.
Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
Exothermic and endothermic reactions are both types of chemical reactions.
In an exothermic reaction, heat is released as the reaction takes place. In contrast, an endothermic reaction absorbs heat from the surroundings in order to proceed.
The overall effect of an exothermic reaction is thus to increase the temperature of the surroundings, while an endothermic reaction has the opposite effect.
Which type of reaction occurs depends on the specific reactants involved and their relative energies.
In general, however, exothermic reactions are more common than endothermic reactions. This is because most chemical reactions release energy as they proceed, due to the breaking of bonds between atoms or molecules.
Endothermic reactions are relatively rarer, but they can still occur under certain conditions. For example, when water vapor condenses to form liquid water, it absorbs latent heat from the surrounding air, causing the air to cool down.
Exothermic and endothermic reactions are both important processes that play a role in everything from everyday chemistry to large-scale industrial processes. Understanding how they work and how they can be controlled is essential for carrying out these reactions safely and effectively.
Intermolecular forces are attractive forces between molecules. The strength of intermolecular forces determines the state of matter of a substance.
For example, water is a liquid at room temperature because the force of attraction between water molecules is not strong enough to overcome the thermal kinetic energy of the molecules, which allows them to move freely past one another.
If the temperature is lowered, the force of attraction increases and the water molecules become more ordered, leading to a solid state such as ice. In general, solids have the strongest intermolecular forces because the molecules are closest together and have the most contact with one another. Liquids have weaker intermolecular forces, and gases have the weakest intermolecular forces.
Why Boiling Is An Endothermic?
We all know that matter exists in three phases solid, liquid, and gas.
As you know, liquids have greater intermolecular forces than gases. This intermolecular force binds the smaller particles of the substance together to give a shape of a liquid. This structure and forces are not only in one type of liquid substance but have the same situation for every liquid.
When liquid molecules strike the adjacent other countless small molecules, this breakdown the existing liquid molecular forces. As we give more heat to the molecules, steadily with the rise in temperature, intermolecular forces keep on getting weaker. At last, a stage arrives when the liquid intermolecular particle’s force almost get vanished or I say becomes negligible, thus turning into a gaseous state. So, that’s why boiling is an endothermic process
The whole process takes place only because the substance has taken in the heat from the surroundings. We have given only the example of water to make the understanding simpler and quicker.
The internal energy of a substance is the sum of all the kinetic and potential energies of its particles.
The average kinetic energy of the particles is related to the temperature of the substance, while the potential energy is related to the forces between the particles.
If a substance is in contact with another substance at a different temperature, there will be heat flow between the two substances until they reach equilibrium, at which point their temperatures will be equal.
The three most common phases of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. In a solid, the particles are closely packed together and have strong forces between them, so they have low kinetic energy and high potential energy.
In a liquid, the particles are still close together but can move around more freely, so they have higher kinetic energy and lower potential energy.
In a gas, the particles are far apart and have very weak forces between them, so they have very high kinetic energy and very low potential energy.
Changing from one phase to another usually requires adding or removing heat from the system.
For example, when water freezes into ice, it absorbs latent heat from its surroundings, which makes the ice colder than the liquid water was. Similarly, when water vapor condenses into liquid water, it releases latent heat into its surroundings, which makes the water vapor hotter than the liquid water was.
Change of State
Changes of state occur when the forces holding the particles together change. For example, when a solid melts, the intermolecular forces holding the particles in place are overcome by thermal energy, causing the particles to move more freely and assume a liquid state.
The reverse process—a liquid freezing to form a solid—occurs when thermal energy is removed from a liquid, causing the particles to slow down and become more ordered. Similarly, when a liquid boils, enough thermal energy is added to overcome the intermolecular forces holding the particles in place. This causes the particles to move apart from one another and expand into a gas.
What are Chemical Reactions?
A chemical reaction is a process that results in the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Chemical reactions involve the breaking of existing bonds between atoms and the formation of new bonds to create different substances.
The substances involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants, and the new substances that are created are called products. Reactions can be represented using chemical equations, which show the reactants on the left side of an arrow and the products on the right side.
In order for a chemical reaction to take place, there must be a suitable environment and enough energy to break the existing bonds and form new ones. While most reactions require some input of energy, some reactions release energy, which is known as an exothermic reaction.
Chemical reactions are important in many different fields, including chemistry, biology, and environmental science.
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- However, it is interesting to note that steam has more heat and causes severe injury than that boiling water. Patients who get injured with steam take more time to recover them get hurt by boiling water. This happens because water particles absorbing heat turn into steam. This directly helps us to understand it is an endothermic process.
- Endothermic energy is used to run steam rail engines. You surely have read during the classroom that the first engine was a steam engine. Steam has more heat than water. It has so much heat to carry or push thousands of passengers without any stop. Whereas, this cannot be done with boiling water.
Boiling of Egg
The process of boiling an egg is exothermic, meaning that it releases heat. When the egg is heated, the proteins in the egg begin to denature, or change shape. This change in shape causes the proteins to come together and form new bonds, releasing energy in the process.
As the egg continues to cook, more and more energy is released until the proteins are fully denatured and the egg is cooked through. The heat released by the exothermic reaction of cooking an egg can be used to cook other food, such as pasta or vegetables.
In fact, many recipes take advantage of this property of eggs to help speed up the cooking process. So, next time you’re boiling an egg, remember that you’re not just making breakfast, you’re also doing a little bit of science!
How boiling Of water Endothermic?
When water is heated, the molecules begin to vibrate more and more. Eventually, they have so much energy that they break free of the attractions that hold them together in a liquid state. These same attractions are what allow them to form bonds with other molecules in the first place. When water is heated, the molecules have enough energy to overcome these attractions, and they begin to move more freely.
As they move faster, they collide with other molecules, causing them to bounce off in all directions. This increase in motion causes the water to expand and take up more space. The expanding water molecules push against the sides of the container, increasing the pressure inside. Eventually, the water reaches its boiling point and turns into a gas.
The process of turning liquid water into gaseous steam is called vaporization or boiling. Vaporization is an endothermic process, which means that it requires heat to proceed. In order to vaporize 1 gram of water, 225 joules of heat must be added to it. This amount of heat is called the latent heat of vaporization or latent heat of steam.
The latent heat of vaporization is higher than the latent heat of fusion because not only does the water have to overcome the attractive forces between molecules, but the molecules also have to expand in order to turn into a gas.
Every substance has its own grasping heat capacity. Water has a boiling temperature of hundred degrees Celsius. If we particularly talk about aluminum, it has a boiling temperature of more than 2,470 °C Celsius. Yes, aluminum can turn into a liquid state. All these substances like Mercury etc we have mentioned above go through the process of endothermic to change their state.
From the very next time, if somebody asks you grasping heat is an endothermic process? You should say- yes, of course, it’s an endothermic process because heat is taken in from the surroundings.
The cohesive force between the molecules of water is not as strong as that between the molecules of ice.
Hence, the molecules can change their relative positions, though they cannot move away from each other. This is why water can flow and change its shape, though its volume remains the same. The volume of water does not change even when it is under pressure because its molecules cannot move closer together. This is why a liquid is incompressible.
The fact that the volume of a liquid does not change under pressure means that its density also does not change with pressure. However, liquids expand considerably when they are heated. Hence, the density of a liquid decreases when it is heated. This, as you may remember, helps to set up convection currents in a liquid. The warmer, lighter part of a liquid rises, while the colder, denser part of a liquid sinks.
Through the boiling endothermic process, molecules start vibrating from their position, strike with each other. Thus, rise in the temperature from both of the things- from the striking frictional heat itself and heat from outside that turn into a liquid form. If we heat further, then it will reach a boiling point.
The intermolecular force of attraction gets weaker. Heat supplied overcomes and breaks the force of attraction and changes into a liquid form.
On providing more kinetic energy, The minute particles become totally free with no force of attraction. They change themselves into a gaseous form. As an example, the same case happens with the water.
On rising up the temperature, it will switch into another form that we called a gaseous form.
It is to remember, during the boiling phase, the substance does not raise its temperature after the boiling point is achieved but at this latent heat point, temperature changes the state of matter only.
Experimentally, on deducing the temperature value of steam and water at 100 degrees celsius, it remains the same. Only, the substance turns into different forms.
Overall, the whole process is only possible through heat absorption and this process is commonly known as an endothermic process.