Covalent compounds are not good conductors of electricity because they do not have any free electrons. The atoms in covalent compounds are held together by strong electron bonds but not so strong like ionic bonds, which results in a stable molecule that does not want to break apart. There is no formation of ions. This means that there is no movement of the electrons and no electrical current can be generated through them.
However, this doesn’t mean that all covalent compounds cannot conduct electricity; for example, graphite conducts electricity because the carbon atoms form layers that allow some movement of their electrons (although it’s still very minimal).
So covalent compounds can sometimes be good conductors of electricity, but it really depends on the type of molecule and how well the electron bonds are formed. For example, diamond is a very good insulator because the electron bonds are very strong and there is no movement of electrons different from graphite.
How electricity Conducts in Ionic Bonds:
When atoms lose or gain electrons, they become charged particles called ions. Ions can move freely through a liquid or gas, so an electric current can be created by moving these charged particles. In an ionic compound, the positive ions (called cations) are attracted to the negative electrodes (called anions), and the negative ions are attracted to the positive electrodes. Ionic compounds are good conductors of electricity because cations and anions can be forced to move by applying an electrical force.
How electricity Conducts in Covalent Bonds:
In covalent bonds, atoms share electrons with each other to form a covalent bond. Therefore, covalent molecules generally do not conduct electricity because covalent bonds are covalent compounds. These covalent molecules can be used as insulators to prevent the electric current from flowing through them.
Electrons that form covalent bonds are not available for use in an electrical circuit, but electrons that form ionic bonds are available for use in an electrical circuit. Therefore, covalent compounds are insulators that do not conduct electricity while covalent compounds are good conductors of electricity.
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